Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
3. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of CCGI and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, including Car Charging, Inc., Beam Charging LLC (“Beam”), EV Pass LLC (“EV Pass”), Blink Network LLC (“Blink”) and Car Charging China Corp. (“Car Charging China”). All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation.
Through April 16, 2014, 350 Green LLC (“350 Green”) was a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company in which the Company had full voting control and was therefore consolidated. Beginning on April 17, 2014, when 350 Green’s assets and liabilities were transferred to a trust mortgage, 350 Green became a Variable Interest Entity (“VIE”). The consolidation guidance relating to accounting for VIEs requires an enterprise to perform an analysis to determine whether the enterprise’s variable interest or interests give it a controlling financial interest in a variable interest entity and perform ongoing reassessments of whether an enterprise is the primary beneficiary of a VIE. The Company determined that it is the primary beneficiary of 350 Green, and as such, 350 Green’s assets, liabilities and results of operations are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
USE OF ESTIMATES
Preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses, together with amounts disclosed in the related notes to the financial statements. The Company’s significant estimates used in these financial statements include, but are not limited to, stock-based compensation, accounts receivable reserves, warranty reserves, inventory valuations, the valuation allowance related to the Company’s deferred tax assets, the carrying amount of intangible assets, estimates of future EV sales and the effects thereon, fair value of derivative liabilities and the recoverability and useful lives of long-lived assets. Certain of the Company’s estimates could be affected by external conditions, including those unique to the Company and general economic conditions. It is reasonably possible that these external factors could have an effect on the Company’s estimates and could cause actual results to differ from those estimates.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents in the consolidated financial statements. The Company has cash on deposits in several financial institutions which, at times, may be in excess of FDIC insurance limits. The Company has not experienced losses in such accounts.
Accounts receivable are carried at their contractual amounts, less an estimate for uncollectible amounts. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, there was an allowance for uncollectable amounts of $42,349 and $140,998, respectively. Management estimates the allowance for bad debts based on existing economic conditions, the financial conditions of the customers, and the amount and age of past due accounts. Receivables are considered past due if full payment is not received by the contractual due date. Past due accounts are generally written off against the allowance for bad debts only after all collection attempts have been exhausted.
Inventory is comprised of electric charging stations and related parts, which are available for sale or for warranty requirements. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined by the first-in, first-out method. Inventory that is sold to third parties is included within cost of sales and inventory that is installed on the premises of participating owner/operator properties, where the Company retains ownership, is transferred to fixed assets at the carrying value of the inventory. The Company periodically reviews for slow-moving, excess or obsolete inventories. Products that are determined to be obsolete, if any, are written down to net realizable value. Based on the aforementioned periodic reviews, the Company recorded an inventory reserve for slow-moving, excess or obsolete inventories of $154,000 and $290,000 as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company’s inventory was comprised solely of finished goods and parts that are available for sale.
Fixed assets are stated at cost, net of accumulated depreciation and amortization which is recorded commencing at the in-service date using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets, as set forth in the following table:
When fixed assets are retired or otherwise disposed of, the cost and accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is included in the statements of operations for the respective period. Minor additions and repairs are expensed in the period incurred. Major additions and repairs which extend the useful life of existing assets are capitalized and depreciated using the straight-line method over their remaining estimated useful lives.
EV charging stations represents the cost, net of accumulated depreciation, of charging devices that have been installed on the premises of participating owner/operator properties or are earmarked to be installed. The Company held approximately $48,000 and $29,000 in EV charging stations that were not placed in service as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
The Company’s long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the asset may not be recoverable. The Company assesses the recoverability of its long-lived assets by monitoring current selling prices of car charging units in the open market, the adoption rate of various auto manufacturers in the EV market and projected car charging utilization at various public car charging stations throughout its network in determining fair value. An impairment loss would be recognized when estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition are less than its carrying amount. See Note 6 – Fixed Assets for additional details.
CAPITALIZED SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT COSTS
The Company capitalizes software development costs in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 985 “Software”. Capitalization of software development costs begins upon the determination of technological feasibility. The determination of technological feasibility and the ongoing assessment of the recoverability of these costs requires considerable judgment by management with respect to certain external factors, including anticipated future gross product revenues, estimated economic life and changes in hardware and software technology. Historically, software development costs incurred subsequent to the establishment of technological feasibility have not been material.
Intangible assets were acquired in conjunction with the acquisitions of Beam, EV Pass, and Blink during 2013 and were recorded at their fair value at such time. Trademarks are amortized on a straight-line basis over their useful life of ten years. Patents are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lives of the patent (twenty years or less), commencing when the patent is approved and placed in service on a straight-line basis.
The Company operates a single segment business as disclosed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. The Company’s chief operating decision maker views the Company's operating performance on a consolidated basis as its only business is the sale and distribution of electric vehicle charging machines and revenues that it earns from customers who use machines connected to its network, whether owned by the Company or third party hosts.
DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Company evaluates its convertible instruments to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivative financial instruments to be separately accounted for in accordance with Topic 815 of the FASB ASC. The accounting treatment of derivative financial instruments requires that the Company record the conversion options and warrants at their fair values as of the inception date of the agreement and at fair value as of each subsequent balance sheet date. Any change in fair value is recorded as non-operating, non-cash income or expense for each reporting period at each balance sheet date. Conversion options are recorded as a discount to the host instrument and are amortized as interest expense over the life of the underlying instrument. The Company reassesses the classification of its derivative instruments at each balance sheet date. If the classification changes as a result of events during the period, the contract is reclassified as of the date of the event that caused the reclassification.
The Binomial Lattice Model was used to estimate the fair value of the warrants that are classified as derivative liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets. The model includes subjective input assumptions that can materially affect the fair value estimates. The expected volatility is estimated based on the most recent historical period of time equal to the weighted average life of the warrants.
Under ASC 815-40-35, the Company has adopted a sequencing policy whereby, in the event that reclassification of contracts from equity to assets or liabilities is necessary pursuant to ASC 815 due to the Company’s inability to demonstrate it has sufficient authorized shares, shares will be allocated on the basis of the earliest issuance date of potentially dilutive instruments, with the earliest grants receiving the first allocation of shares.
FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The Company measures the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on the guidance of ASC 820 “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures” (“ASC 820”) which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 — quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities
Level 2 — quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable
Level 3 — inputs that are unobservable (for example, cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions)
The carrying amounts of the Company’s financial instruments, such as cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximate fair values due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The carrying amount of the Company’s notes payable approximates fair value because the effective yields on these obligations, which include contractual interest rates, taken together with other features such as concurrent issuance of warrants, are comparable to rates of returns for instruments of similar credit risk.
The Company recognizes revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. The Company considers revenue realized or realizable and earned when all of the following criteria are met: (i) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (ii) the services have been rendered to the customer, (iii) the sales price is fixed or determinable, and (iv) collectability is reasonably assured. Accordingly, when a customer completes use of a charging station, the service can be deemed rendered and revenue may be recognized based on the time duration of the session or kilowatt hours drawn during the session. Sales of EV stations are recognized upon shipment to the customer, free on board shipping point, or the point of customer acceptance.
Governmental grants and rebates pertaining to revenues and periodic expenses are recognized as income when the related revenue and/or periodic expense are recorded. Government grants and rebates related to EV charging stations and their installation are deferred and amortized in a manner consistent with the related depreciation expense of the related asset over their useful lives.
For arrangements with multiple elements, which is comprised of (1) a charging unit, (2) installation of the charging unit, (3) maintenance and (4) network fees, revenue is recognized dependent upon whether vendor specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) of fair value exists for separating each of the elements. The Company determined that VSOE exists for both the delivered and undelivered elements of the company’s multiple-element arrangements. The Company limited their assessment of fair value to either (a) the price charged when the same element is sold separately or (b) the price established by management having the relevant authority.
During the year ended December 31, 2016, revenues generated from Entity C represented approximately 13% of the Company’s total revenue. During the year ended December 31, 2015, revenues generated from Entity A and Entity C represented approximately 18% and 16% of the Company’s total revenue, respectively. The Company generated grant revenues from a governmental agency (Entity A) and charging service revenues from a customer (Entity C). As of December 31, 2016, accounts receivable from Entity C were 18% of total accounts receivable.
Certain prior year balances have been reclassified in order to conform to current year presentation. These reclassifications have no effect on previously reported results of operations or loss per share.
The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is measured on the measurement date and re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period is complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. Awards granted to non-employee directors for their service as a director are treated on the same basis as awards granted to employees. The Company computes the fair value of equity-classified warrants and options granted using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of items that have been included in the financial statements or tax returns. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are based on the differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance to the extent management concludes it is more likely than not that the assets will not be realized. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the Statements of Operations in the period that includes the enactment date. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, the Company maintained a full valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets since it is more likely than not that the future tax benefit on such temporary differences will not be realized.
The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain income tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position should be measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement by examining taxing authorities. The Company has open tax years going back to 2013 which may be subject to audit by federal and state authorities. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties accrued on uncertain income tax positions in interest expense in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations. As of December 31, 2016 and 2015, we had no liability for unrecognized tax benefits. The Company does not expect the unrecognized tax benefits to change significantly over the next 12 months.
NET LOSS PER COMMON SHARE
Basic net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number of vested common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted average number vested of common shares, plus the net impact of common shares (computed using the treasury stock method), if dilutive, resulting from the exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants, plus the conversion of preferred stock and convertible notes.
The following common stock equivalents are excluded from the calculation of weighted average dilutive common shares because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Liabilities for loss contingencies arising from claims, assessments, litigation, fines and penalties and other sources are recorded when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the assessment can be reasonably estimated.
LITIGATION AND DISPUTES
The Company records legal costs associated with loss contingencies as incurred and accrues for all probable and estimable settlements.
RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” (“ASU 2014-09”). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASC 605 - Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”) and most industry-specific guidance throughout ASC 605. The standard requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The guidance in ASU 2014-09 was revised in July 2015 to be effective for interim periods beginning on or after December 15, 2017 and should be applied on a transitional basis either retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of initial application. In 2016, FASB issued additional ASUs that clarify the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations (ASU 2016-08), on identifying performance obligations and licensing (ASU 2016-10), and on narrow-scope improvements and practical expedients (ASU 2016-12) as well as on the revenue recognition criteria and other technical corrections (ASU 2016-20). The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of these ASUs on its consolidated financial position and results of operations.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory,” (“ASU 2015-11”). ASU 2015-11 amends the existing guidance to require that inventory should be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Subsequent measurement is unchanged for inventory measured using last-in, first-out or the retail inventory method. ASU 2015-11 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The adoption of ASU 2015-011 is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statement or disclosures.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 requires an entity to recognize assets and liabilities arising from a lease for both financing and operating leases. The ASU will also require new qualitative and quantitative disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating ASU 2016-02 and its impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, “Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718)” (“ASU 2016-09”). ASU 2016-09 requires an entity to simplify several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-09 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of ASU 2016-009 is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statement or disclosures.
In August 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-15, “Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230) Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments” (“ASU 2016-15”). ASU 2016-15 will make eight targeted changes to how cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. ASU 2016-15 requires adoption on a retrospective basis unless it is impracticable to apply, in which case the Company would be required to apply the amendments prospectively as of the earliest date practicable. The Company is currently evaluating ASU 2016-15 and its impact on its consolidated financial statements or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef